A brain tumor is an abnormal cell mass caused by uncontrolled brain cell proliferation. There are many different types of brain tumors based on the cells that are damaged, their location, and other factors. The symptoms of a brain tumor can range from headaches, nausea, impaired vision, and other general neurological issues to more specific neurological issues such as speech difficulties, loss of balance, personality or mood changes, and others. One of the most common treatments for many types of brain and spine cancers is brain tumor surgery.
Brain tumor surgery in India is determined by various factors, including the tumor's form, location, size, and the patient's age and overall health. Children and adults have different treatment approaches and schedules.
The average cost of brain tumor surgery in India may vary depending upon the hospitals in different cities and the type of surgery recommended by the surgeon.
What is Brain Tumor?
A brain tumor is the development of abnormal cells or tissue in the brain or the skull region. It is caused by the sudden and uncontrolled cell division, which occurs most commonly in the brain, but can also occur in lymphatic tissue, blood vessels, cranial nerves, brain meninges (a thin layer of tissue that covers the spinal cord and brain), the skull, pituitary gland, or pineal gland, as well as from congenital vest cells.
There are many different types of brain tumors, and they all fall into one of the following groups:
- Benign tumor: It is not cancerous. A benign tumor must be carefully examined to see if it is near critical structures like blood arteries, nerves, or the brain stem.
- Malignant tumor: It refers to a tumor that is cancerous in nature. It is critical to evaluate whether a malignant tumor is primary or metastatic. The size, nature, and location of the tumor all play a role in determining the best treatment option.
- Metastatic Tumor: A malignant brain tumor produced by the spread of cancer cells from another part of the body is referred to as a metastatic tumor. The lung, breast, kidney, colon, or metastatic melanoma are frequently the initial cause (primary location) of metastatic brain tumors. Some people may experience symptoms from metastatic brain tumors before the originating site is identified. In around 90% of patients, the main source of the metastatic tumor can be identified.
What are the Symptoms of a Brain Tumor?
The size, nature, and location of a brain tumor determine the type and intensity of symptoms. The following are some of the most common signs and symptoms of brain tumor:
- Vomiting and nausea
- Convulsions (especially in older adults)
- Problems with vision
- Difficulty in remembering things or ability to understand
- Consciousness has dropped to a lower level.
- Writing or reading difficulties
- Inability to control bladder and bowel movements
- Personality, mood, or behavior changes, as well as emotional transition
- Hearing loss with or without dizziness on a regular basis
Why do people choose India for Brain Tumor Surgery?
There are the best brain tumor surgery hospitals in India that are renowned, cutting-edge health care facilities. These hospitals have a reputation for treating cancers of all types and stages. As per the protocol, brain tumor surgery is performed by a team of surgeons and cancer experts. The physician who performs the surgery on the brain is a neurosurgeon. Other specialists assist the neurosurgeons, depending on the procedure's specific demands. An ENT surgeon, for example, may assist during surgery for vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) or a pituitary tumor.
The best neurosurgeons in India are well-known and skilled surgeons who have received numerous awards and recognition. They have received training from prestigious medical institutes and are competent in the use of modern surgical methods.
How is Brain Tumor Surgery Performed?
Following are the options available in India for brain tumor surgery:
- Partial surgical removal of the tumor: When the tumor cannot be reached (such as crucial brain areas) or surgery would represent a considerable risk to the patient, partial surgical removal of the tumor is the chosen treatment strategy.
- Complete surgical removal of the tumor: In this procedure, the surgeon eliminates the entire tumor without causing any damage to important brain tissue.
- Endovascular Surgery: It is used to treat an aneurysm (a blood artery that has swelled or expanded). An endovascular graft is inserted and positioned inside the aorta during surgery. It stretches and shuts off the aneurysm once it is in place, preventing blood from flowing into it. The graft remains in place permanently.
- Radiation Therapy: Ionising radiation and particles are utilized in the treatment of malignant neoplasms during radiation therapy. A therapeutic dose is given to the affected area. To minimize the exposure to the overlying and neighboring normal tissue, sophisticated electronic systems have been devised to deliver the radiation at one angle and then rotate the source.
- Stereotactic radiosurgery: Peacock therapy, gamma knife, and linear accelerator-based treatment.
- Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy is the use of certain chemical agents and medications that are specifically destructive to cancerous cells and tissues.
What are the criteria to select the right treatment for a Brain Tumor?
The majority of benign tumors are removed completely. However, in some cases, a portion of a benign tumor is left behind to protect critical nerves, requiring a second step of treatment that includes radiation therapy, gamma knife or cyberknife therapy, and chemotherapy for the remaining tumor, which will almost surely cure the condition. Regular MRI or CT scans may be used to monitor benign tumors that are slow-growing and difficult to access surgically, or that are not producing substantial symptoms.
Depending on the stage of cancer, a comprehensive strategy (three-fold surgery and radiotherapy with or without chemotherapy) is used to treat malignant tumors. In addition to surgery, chemotherapy or radiation therapy are frequently used to ensure that any leftover tumor cells do not regrow or do so at a slower rate. This modality is very well tolerated and has very few side effects when using sophisticated radiation devices.
If a person experiences any of the brain-related symptoms over an extended period of time. He or she must seek the advice of an expert and engage in a thorough discussion. A benign tumor can be easily controlled in its early stages.
If the tumor has spread to the metastatic stage, it will be difficult to control its growth.