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Data Structures Algorithms In Java

## Overview of data structures in Java

A practical approach to storing and arranging data in a computer is through a data structure. It offers a way to manage massive amounts of data effectively. And creating practical algorithms requires effective data structures.

• Linear Data Structures
• Stacks
• Queues

• Hierarchical Data Structures
• Binary Trees
• Heaps
• Hash Tables

## Linear Data Structures in Java

According to the Java language, linear data structures are those whose elements are arranged sequentially and in such a way that there is only one first element, one next element, one last element, and only one last element. In contrast, all other elements have a next and a previous element.

A linear data structure known as an array allows for index-based access to a collection of related objects. Before storing any data, an array's size needs to be specified. The following are attributes of an array:

1. The size and data type of every element in an array is the same.
2. The array's components are kept in adjacent memory locations, with the first element starting at the memory address with the smallest size.
3. The array's elements can be accessed at random.
4. There are certain static elements in the array data structure.

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A linked list is a linear data structure made up of several nodes, each of which has a pointer to the element after it in the list. A linked list's final link always points to null, signaling the chain's conclusion. A linked list's nodes are its building blocks. The head refers to the top node, and the tail is the last node in the chain.

• ### Stacks

The last-in-first-out (LIFO) principle is used to insert and remove objects from the stack, an abstract storage structure. At any moment, objects can be added to a stack, but only the most recent object (the “latest”) can be removed from the stack.

The following are characteristics of a stack:

• It is an ordered list where only the top end, also known as the top end, can be used for insertion and deletion.
• Data structure that recursively references its top member
• Adheres to the principle of last-in, first-out (LIFO)
• Supports the two most basic techniques:
1. push(e): Topple element e from the stack
2. pop(): Take the top element off the stack and put it back.

### 3. Queues

Another sort of abstract data structure is a queue. The queue, instead of a stack, is a group of items that are added and withdrawn per the first-in-first-out (FIFO) principle. In other words, elements may be added at any moment, but only the element with the longest wait time can be deleted at any time. The following are characteristics of a queue:

• commonly known as the first-in, first-out list
• supports the two most basic techniques:
1. enqueue(e): Place element e at the end of the line.
2. Dequeue (): Remove the item from the front of the queue, then put it back.

## Algorithms in Java:

Algorithms have a close relationship with computer science in general and with data structures in particular because they have historically been employed as a tool for completing challenging mathematical problems. An algorithm is a set of instructions that outlines a process for resolving a particular issue in a limited amount of time.

They are demonstrated in two distinct ways:

Flowcharts: These diagrams show how an algorithm's control flow operates.

A written representation of an algorithm that approximates the final source code is known as pseudocode.

Java has two main categories for algorithms, which are:

### 1. Sorting Algorithms in Java:

Sorting algorithms are programmes that arrange list items in a particular hierarchy.

### 2. Searching Algorithms in Java:

One of the most popular and often used operations in typical commercial applications is searching. An object with specific qualities can be found within a collection of items using search algorithms.

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