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DMAIC Model and its Approach in Lean Six Sigma – 6sigma.us

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What Is DMAIC Model?

When studying Six Sigma at any certification level, the most important method you will learn is DMAIC Model. This acronym stands for Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve, and Control. Furthermore, it helps solve problems where the solution is not always clear. Many time when using Six Sigma, your goal is to improve a business process. This could mean increasing the efficiency, reducing waste, or deterring production defects. But, how exactly do you accomplish these goals? DMAIC is your answer! 

DMAIC Methodology is a data-driven quality strategy utilized for process improvement through integrating a Six Sigma quality initiative. Define is the initial stage of DMAIC model. It defines the CTQ (critical to quality) issues and the core business process involved. In detail, it explains the customer requirements, expectations of the customer, project boundaries, stop and start the process, a process flow of the process.

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How DMAIC Model perform as an approach to problem-solving?

DMAIC is a roadmap used as the problem-solving method for process or quality improvement.

DMAIC method differs from conventional problem solving since it belongs below steps during problem-solving:


  • Define customer expectations
  • Define impacted business processes
  • Define project boundaries
  • Define metrics
  • Define Team members, Project Leader

Defines the problem, opportunities, goals and customer requirements. It focuses on selecting high-impact project through focusing on CTQ (Critical to Quality) The deliverable of the define phase will be the project charter that includes the project objective, goal, team members, cost benefit.


  • Data collection
  • Measure process

Measures the process performance and documents the current process and validates the baseline performance. Measurement system analysis in the measure phase depends upon the type of data been collected. For instance; for variable data – Gage R& R, Attribute data – Attribute agreement analysis tools are preferred. SIPOC, Process mapping, top down charting can be commonly used for both types of data to explain the process flow.


  • Analyze gathered Data
  • Identify gap between existing and goal performance
  • Analyze the cause for the gap
  • Decide on the processes to be improved

Determines root causes of variation and isolates the top causes behind the CTQ. In most cases, the root cause may exceed more than three. A tool such as Pareto Chart helps to prioritize the top causes. Most commonly used tools to identify the root causes are 5- Why, Fish-bone diagram. Tools to validate the cause are Scatter Diagram, Regression Analysis, and Hypothesis Testing.

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  • Identify potential solutions
  • Pilot Study
  • Test
  • Evaluate proposed solutions
  • Develop implementation plan

Fully understands the root causes and eliminates the top causes. Tools used to prioritize the solution are Affinity Diagram, Solution prioritization matrix. Tools to validate the solutions are Hypothesis Testing, Regression analysis


  • Implement process
  • Develop Standing Procedure
  • Develop Control Plans
  • Train staff on new process

Improves process and monitors future process performance. This phase involves error-proof the process and creates a checklist to sustain the changes made in the improve phase. Tools used in this phase include Standard Operating Procedure, Automation, and Checklist.

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Source: 6sigma.us


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