FISH tests for somatic recurrent losses, gains, and translocations using panels of gene-specific probes are routinely used for hematologic and solid tumours and are one of the fastest-growing areas in cancer diagnosis. FISH has also been used to detect infectious microbias and parasites in human blood cells, such as malaria. Recent advances in FISH technology include the use of super resolution imaging systems for direct In-situ Hybridization of intra-nuclear chromosomal organisation and profiling of RNA transcription in single cells, as well as various methods for improving probe labelling efficiency. Cas9-mediated FISH (CASFISH) allowed in situ labelling of repetitive and single-copy sequences in fixed or living cells without disrupting nuclear genomic organisation.
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