Quantum computing is increasing its footprints with every latest development. Hence, humanity is witnessing the real uses of quantum computing in modern times. In recent times, one more achievement has been earmarked in this domain. NASA scientists got success in one of the concepts of quantum teleportation. This feat also ensured that there is a high-fidelity rate with fewer errors in data transmission. Hence, the accomplishment can create a roadmap for developing an infrastructure where the world can see a faster movement of voluminous data in less than a second soon. Therefore, it is essential to understand this quantum teleportation feat and how NASA scientists and other researchers accomplished the experiment.
What is Quantum Teleportation?
Quantum teleportation is a methodology used to transmit any piece of quantum information from a sender on one location to a receiver at another place, using a transmission medium or channel. This medium acts as a third party channel that follows the quantum protocol to send the quantum information. C. H. Bennett, W. K. Wootters, R. Jozsa, A. Peres, G. Brassard, and C. Crépeau investigated quantum teleportation for the first time in the year 1993. In quantum information, the data transferred is in qubits, an analogous form of binary data, i.e., bit. Quantum teleportation follows a two-state system. This two-state system tries to transfer quantum information from one place to another. In this transfer, it attains the quality of the information. It keeps it in synchronization with the original data by not letting it be distorted due to the noise in the transmission medium. The entire process works on information transmission and not the actual carriers moving. Hence, it is quite puzzling to see the term teleportation used for the methodology.
How NASA scientists attained Quantum Teleportation?
NASA’s jet propulsion laboratory demonstrated the successful transfer of long-distanced and sustained teleportation. The distance between the sender and receiver is about 44 km (27 miles). During data transmission, the fidelity rate of data-reception achieved is more than 90%. The transmission medium used a fiber-optic network, state-of-the-art photon detectors, and off-the-shelf equipment. This experiment also got collaboration and support from the researchers of AT&T, Caltech University, Harvard University, University of Calgary, and Fermilab. Results from the trial-experiment will get published in the paper titled, “Teleportation Systems Toward a Quantum Internet.” Fermilab and Caltech provided their quantum network named FQNET and CQNET. Both the quantum networks are near-autonomous data processing and are compatible with existing telecommunication infrastructure.
Methods and Concepts to Measure Fidelity
Researchers used the properties of quantum technology, including quantum superposition and quantum entanglement. Accordingly, researchers have chosen qubits. There are two different methods used to measure the fidelity for consolidated inference and verification. One of the techniques used is the quantum state tomography to reconstruct the data and compare it with the ideal data generation. The other method used was decoy states/ quantum cryptography. The signal sent as a weak laser pulse contained many photons ensured that it gives the effect that there is a transmission of one photon.
Challenges during Teleportation
During the conduction of the experiment, scientists and researchers witness a few limitations and constraints. The no-cloning issue is a crucial challenge. It does not let the creation of the replica of a quantum state. Apart from this, the no-deleting bug is another problem. It doesn’t allow the deletion of the quantum information and the noise existing in the teleportation system circuitry.
Benefits and Potentials
After the scientists and researchers declared this experiment’s success, it has opened many gates for several forms of communication. Firstly, scientists can advance towards a better internet medium that will ensure faster transmission with high fidelity and low latency. Next, the consolidation of quantum teleportation will lead humanity towards the development of high-speed computers, laptops, and supercomputers. Now, the researchers have got a medium to use high-speed communication without traditional and conventional transistors. Apart from this, the data information density will show a surge, thus, opening new resorts for more data storage and accumulation and use it for future analysis and forecasting through machine learning algorithms and artificial intelligence.
Daisy Martin is an avid technical blogger, a magazine contributor, a publisher of guides at mcafee.com/activate and a professional cyber security analyst. Through her writing, she aims to educate people about the dangers and threats lurking in the digital world .