Six Sigma principles are less about stages or phases, and more about having the right mindset. To succeed in a Six Sigma project, teams must be prepared to tackle challenges.
For a business, this might mean eliminating superfluous steps in an existing gemba process to reduce cycle time and improve quality. For a nonprofit, it might mean cutting administrative inefficiencies so supporters know more of their donation goes directly to program services.
1. Define the Problem
The first step in implementing Six Sigma is defining the problem. A team must gather data regarding the problem and analyze it thoroughly to identify patterns or trends. This data can be collected from customer surveys, financial reports, safety records and quality control reports. Input from colleagues who are directly involved in the process can also be helpful. Once a clear picture of the problem has been established, teams can begin to look for possible causes of the problem.
A critical aspect of this process is identifying the voice of the customer, as well as their expectations. This ensures that any changes made are designed to meet customers’ needs and improve their experience.
Six Sigma is a set of quantitative and qualitative techniques that are used to drive quality improvement. Although Six Sigma professionals don’t agree on exactly what tools comprise the set, there is recognition of a rigorous underlying approach called DMAIC that defines the steps a practitioner must follow from identification of a problem to implementation of long-lasting solutions.
Six Sigma principles are essential for organizations that want to increase efficiency and quality. By reducing defects and streamlining processes, companies can cut costs and increase revenue. To successfully implement Six Sigma, CLOs must make sure that their employees are properly trained in the methodology and understand how to use the tools. This may include a three- to five-day overview that introduces Six Sigma and its methodologies, as well as Green Belt training for those who will be working on projects.
2. Identify the Root Cause
Six Sigma is based on the principle that processes can be defined, measured, analyzed, improved and controlled. It focuses on identifying and eliminating the causes of defects, errors, or weak spots in a business process, using a collection of quality tools to achieve this.
To start, a team analyzes the current workflow by observing and documenting the actual process in place. This is called “going to see,” a key element of the Six Sigma methodology. It allows for a clear understanding of what is actually happening, including any flaws or weaknesses. This information is then compared with what a customer would want, or what would constitute an ideal performance standard.
This step also involves determining how much variation is acceptable and what improvements are necessary. This is done by comparing the average amount of variance to what is considered to be statistically significant. For example, a company might decide that 3.4 defects per million products or services is a satisfactory level of error.
Once the analysis is complete, a plan is put in place for improving the process. This is known as the Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control (DMAIC) approach. To make this work, employees need training in Six Sigma and the use of quality improvement tools and methods. Training programs have evolved to include a Yellow Belt level of quick overview, followed by Green Belt and Black Belt training, which lead to master black belt certification.
3. Analyze the Process
As a process improvement methodology, Six Sigma uses a set of tools to identify problems and implement long-lasting solutions. These tools include statistical analysis, failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) and process mapping. However, Six Sigma professionals disagree as to exactly which tools comprise the set.
A fundamental element of Six Sigma is observing the actual workflow in order to understand what actually happens. This is known as “go and see.” By examining the workflow in its entirety, you can begin to identify areas that need improvement. The goal is to reduce waste and variation so that processes produce consistent results.
One of the key tools in Six Sigma is the Five Whys, a technique that helps to get to the root cause of the problem. Asking why a particular issue occurs multiple times helps to identify and remove bottlenecks, which can significantly slow the flow of work.
Another important aspect of Six Sigma is empowering employees to be part of the process. This involves ensuring that employees have the training, skills and support they need to be successful. It also means creating a culture where people are looking for ways to improve the process. Then, once the improvements are implemented, it is essential to monitor and control the process to ensure that the changes stick. Six Sigma also includes a phase that focuses on designing new processes or products, which is known as DMAIC.
4. Measure the Process
This phase involves collecting and analysing data on the current state of a process. It includes a project charter, an analysis of the customer voice and identification of critical to quality variables (CTQs). Processes are measured to determine their performance and then analysed to identify what causes them to vary. This allows the team to develop and implement a solution that will improve the process.
Measuring the process means selecting metrics that are meaningful and relevant to the specific process that is being measured. It also involves ensuring that the data being collected is accurate. Once the data is collected it must be analyzed using statistical tools to help make sense of it. This may include identifying bottlenecks and other issues.
Once the problem is identified it can be solved by reducing the variation in the process. This will result in a more predictable output, allowing for reduced cycle times and improved costs. The Six Sigma methodology also focuses on standardizing processes to reduce errors that can occur when different teams perform a process differently. For example, an employee at a quick oil change service will be less likely to forget to top up a customer’s windshield wiper fluid if they follow a standardized checklist every time.
Providing employees with the skills and knowledge they need to be successful with this type of improvement initiative is crucial. This will involve empowering them to be involved in the project from the beginning and ensuring that they are provided with the training and tools to succeed. It will also involve a change in culture and a shift in mindset that emphasizes continuous improvement.
5. Design the Solution
Once the problem has been identified, it's time to design a solution. This involves creating a plan that will reduce or eliminate defects and improve the process. It's important to remember that this step is based on data, not hunches or guesses. The goal is to create a process that will produce error-free results with predictability, which in turn can improve customer satisfaction and financial success.
The final phase of Six Sigma is implementation. Once the improvements have been designed, they need to be implemented and measured to determine how effective they are. This also includes training employees on the new processes so that they can be sustainable.
Implementing Six Sigma principles helps organizations increase the quality of their products and services while decreasing costs. It can even lead to revenue growth by reducing financial waste. For example, a business that provides quick oil changes may be able to eliminate errors by providing a standardized checklist for all employees to follow. This will ensure that each car is topped off with the correct amount of fluid and will not miss any critical steps like topping off windshield wiper fluid.
The key to successfully implementing Six Sigma is keeping the customer at the center of all decisions. This includes using statistical tools to identify problems and potential improvement opportunities, analyzing the root causes of those problems, and then designing and implementing solutions that will help to improve the quality of your product or service.
6. Implement the Solution
To improve a process, Six Sigma practitioners use a method known as DMAIC, or Define, Measure, Analyze, Improve and Control. This method uses statistical tools such as scatter diagrams and histograms to identify problems and opportunities for improvement. It also focuses on standardizing processes to reduce errors that may result from variation in methods.
For example, if a company offers oil changes on cars, it might provide employees with a checklist that specifies the order in which they should check and replace fluids. This ensures that every car is serviced consistently, so an employee won't forget to top off the windshield wiper fluid, for instance.
This step involves identifying the current process performance and measuring it to determine its level of defects per million opportunities, or DPMO. It also includes an analysis of the current process from a customer perspective to determine critical to quality variables, or CTQs.
Then, the team analyzes the data to determine what is causing the issues with the process. The team then comes up with solutions that are designed to fix the problems. Once the solutions are implemented, the team measures the new process to see if it has achieved its desired improvements. If the new process is performing well, the team will implement a plan to maintain it. Otherwise, the team will continue to measure the process and identify opportunities for further improvement.