1. Business

The Authorized Capital of a Company

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A firm's authorised capital is the maximum amount of share capital for which the company can issue shares. The company's initial permitted capital, which is normally Rs. 1 lakh, is specified in the Memorandum of Association. With the consent of the shareholders and payment of an additional charge to the Registrar of Companies, the company can increase its capital at any moment. To understand more about a private limited company's permitted capital, go here.

If ABC Private Limited Company has a Rs. 10 lakh authorized capital, it indicates the company can issue shares worth up to Rs. 10 lakh to its shareholders. ABC Private Limited Company is unable to issue shares to its investors for Rs. 11 lakhs. However, as long as the firm has not issued shares in excess of the permitted capital, it can continue to issue shares for just Rs. 5 lakh to its investors.

Authorized Capital vs Paid Up Capital

The share capital of a private limited company, a one-person firm, or a limited company will be categorized in the financial statements as one of several types. The necessity for paid-up capital for the company was recently repealed by the Companies Amendment Act, 2015. The necessity for authorized capital, however, remains in place. As a result, we go over the differences between approved capital and paid-up capital in detail to help entrepreneurs comprehend them.

Paid-up Capital of a Company

The paid-up share capital of a company is the amount of money for which shares were issued to the shareholder and for which payment was made by the shareholder. Paid-up capital will always be less than authorized capital, as a company cannot issue shares above its authorized capital.

The Companies Act, 2013 earlier mandated that all private limited companies have a minimum paid-up capital of Rs. 1 lakh. This meant that Rs. 1 lakh worth of money had to be invested in the company by the purchase of the company shares by the shareholders to start the business. However, the Companies Amendment Act, 2015 relaxed the minimum requirement for paid-up capital. Therefore, there is now no requirement for any minimum capital to be invested to start a private limited company.

How Many Shares to Authorize?

There is no necessity with respect to the number of offers that can be approved. Ventures utilize approved shares when they open up to the world by offering an organization's value, for example, through a first sale of stock (IPO).

In this manner, it is critical to make an adequate number of offers accessible to satisfy the goals of stock contributions and representative pay by furnishing them with monetary instruments that can be practiced at a specific date and a foreordained cost, like stock warrants or choices.

Approved capital offers incorporate a wide range of offers that can be given, for example,


  • Common shares
  • Preferred shares
  • Restricted shares

What are Common Shares?

One of the types of securities that indicate equity ownership in a firm is common shares. Common shares are often referred to as common stock, ordinary share, or voting share.

Shareholders of common stock have the right to a portion of a company's profits. The proportion is determined by a shareholder's ownership stake in the company.

What are preferred shares?

Preferred shares (sometimes called preferred stock or preference shares) are a type of security equivalent to common stock. The fundamental difference is that preferred shares have a higher claim on a company's assets and earnings than regular shares.

Preferred shareholders receive priority over common shareholders in dividend payments, making preferred shares senior to common shares.

Preferred stockholders do not have voting rights, so keep that in mind.

The following are the main characteristics of preferred stock:

  • Preference in assets during liquidation (priority over common shareholders to claim assets if the company defaults)
  • Preference in dividends (Preferred shareholders are paid first, ahead of common shareholders but after any debt holders).
  • Voting rights
  • Convertible to common shares (can be converted to a predetermined number of common shares)
  • callable (can be repurchased by the issuer at certain dates in the future).


What are restricted shares?

Confined shares will be shares conceded mostly to corporate officials, chiefs, and other senior leaders. The offers are non-transferrable until specific circumstances are met.

Instances of such circumstances incorporate the proceeded with work of an organization's chief for a characterized period, the organization's accomplishing a specific income for each offer (EPS) figure, or some other monetary objective for the organization. After gathering the limitation prerequisites, the responsible organization moves the offers to the grantees.

Confined shares act as an incredible inspirational instrument for workers on the grounds that, subsequent to getting the offers, they consequently become proprietors of the organization. what's more, in this way, get casting a ballot rights. They will then, at that point, feel more liable for the organization and its general exhibition. It gives more inspiration to them to try sincerely and accomplish further corporate objectives since it will relatively affect their value as investors.

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