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Programming is an art form where the developer allows his creativity to thrive through code. However, it doesn't always mean the code will be void of faults or bugs. This can be time-consuming and frustrating for the developer, who often spends hours or even days identifying and fixing this fault.

 

One of the most common faults in the realm of programming is the segmentation fault. Their emergence in the code remains a mystery, leaving the developers baffled. This segmental fault is usually found in low-level languages like C, where it is preferred to manage memory manually.

 

This blog will analyze segmentation fault in C and other programming languages, including the technical aspects and the work needed to eradicate them.

 

We will also be delving into the topic of CSS scrollbars, their utility, and working in programming. 

 

So, join us as we decipher the code that governs these intricacies and unlock the secrets behind two distinct worlds entwined by their shared passion for impeccable precision and flawless execution.

 

So let us delve into the programming world and understand the significance and utility of the segmentation fault in C and other languages.

 

What is Segmentation Fault?

 

Segmentation fault in C or other languages is a type of fault in the code. This occurs when the program attempts to access a location in the memory but is denied permission.

 

Segmentation faults in C or C++ are errors when a program attempts to access a memory location without permission. This error, a form of generic protection fault, generally happens when memory access is violated. The abbreviation of segmentation faults is Segfaults.

 

Simply put, a segmentation fault in C occurs when the program’s access to a specific part of the computer’s memory is denied. It’s like trying to open a door that is locked. 

 

This fault usually happens when there is a correction or mistake in the writing of the program’s code. This fault can be caused by simple things such as using invalid pointers or going beyond the array boundaries. 

 

The result of these segmentation faults is that the program stops working and crashes when it runs the code and encounters that fault. This action is necessary to prevent the computer's memory from getting corrupted. 

 

Now let us talk about some of the most common causes of Segemental fault in C and other programming languages:

 

Dereferencing NULL Pointers

 

This type of segmentation fault happens when a program tries to access data (write or read) from a pointer pointing to Null (nothing). You can think of De-referencing a NULL pointer as trying to get an object from a closet that does not exist. 

 

Buffer Overflows

This happens when a program continues to write more data into a buffer than it can hold. This overcrowding of data causes the adjacent memory to be overwritten, leading to a segmentation fault in C and other programs when the program tries to access the memory.

 

Uninitialized Pointers

Uninitialized pointers are those pointers that contain random memory addresses. These can lead to segmentation faults in the code and crashes in the programs. Trying to access this memory will show invalid memory access.

 

Stack Overflow

When working with significant local variables or using more recursion, the program can take up much more stack space than is available. This can lead to a segmentation fault.

 

Accessing Invalid Memory Addresses

Segmentation fault can also occur when the program tries to access memory outside its range.

 

Incorrect Memory Allocation

The segmentation fault can occur when the programmer fails to assign memory properly. If the program then tries to access the memory, it crashes. 

 

These are just a few common causes of segmentation faults. The main culprit behind these segmentation faults is the manual memory management in low-level programming languages like C. 

 

The programmer in these languages has to be extra cautious in allocating memory correctly to the program. Higher-level languages don't have segmentation faults as they use automatic memory allocation, thus removing the need for human involvement.

 

The operating system crashes the program when encountering a segmentation fault to prevent memory corruption. The segmentation faults in C and other programming languages must be identified and corrected by programmers using Debugging tools.

 

Now that we have familiarized ourselves with the segmentation faults in C and other languages,  let us move on to our next blog topic, the CSS scrollbar.

 

What is CSS scrollbar?

 

In Web development, the CSS scrollbar is a proprietary style hook that lets software designers create custom themes for the browser's traditional scrollbars.

 

By default, the scrollbar appearance of web pages is typically controlled by the web browser and the operating system installed on the user’s device. 

 

CSS (Cascading Style Sheets) allows the user to alter the appearance and feel of these scrollbars. This lets designers and web developers match them with the website's overall theme and color scheme.

 

CSS scrollbars can look and feel whatever the user wants using various CSS properties. The things that can be changed in the scrollbar are width, height, colors, and other visual attributes. Custom animations and themes can also be added to these CSS scrollbars allowing for better immersion.

 

Let us solidify our learning with an example.

 

Suppose you come across a web page with a long text article. However, the web page has a container only a certain fixed height and cannot display all the text. 

 

As you scroll down the page, you notice a scrollbar on the right side of this fixed-height container. This is for letting you know the progress of your reading. This scrollbar is color matched to the existing theme of the web page. The colour darkens as you bring your cursor to it, allowing for better visual feedback. This is the magic of CSS scrollbars.

 

Conclusion

In summary, segmentation faults in C and other languages occur when a program fails to access a memory.

 

Additionally, CSS scrollbars enable designers to customize the appearance and feel of scrollbars on web pages, allowing for much better immersion. 

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