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What Is Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant? Read To Know!

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What Is Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant? Read To Know!

Bone marrow transplantation is a medical therapy that uses cells from a donor bone marrow to treat cancer or blood disorders such as leukaemia. The bone marrow donor cells are transplanted into the patient’s blood system.


A matching donor contributes bone marrow cells in allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (ABMT). ABMT therapy uses stem cells harvested from the donor’s bone marrow and transplanted into the recipient’s blood system to treat blood disease, cancer, and blood-forming disorders like anaemia. 

What Is Allogeneic Bone Marrow Transplant?

Allogeneic transplantation involves taking healthy stem cells from a donor or umbilical cord blood and transferring them to the patient. 

This procedure treats blood cancer, lymphoma, and other blood-borne immune system diseases. The process of a stem cell transplant includes the removal of unhealthy blood cells and replacing them with stem cells extracted from the blood or bone marrow.


It is also a safe alternative for chronic immune deficiency patients when other treatments fail.


However, a bone marrow transplant carries risks, such as complications during the procedure, infection after transplantation, graft-versus-host disease, and death. Therefore, only doctors with extensive experience and trained staff should perform it.

The Process Of Harvesting The Donor’s Stem Cell 

A stem cell transplant is a process in which stem cells are harvested from a donor and infused into a patient’s blood system to treat cancer. This procedure is valuable for transplanting cells into patients with leukaemia or lymphoma or treating other blood disorders such as severe aplastic anaemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.


The preparation of the donor for stem cell harvesting differs depending on the type of harvesting procedure used. For example, donors receive chemotherapy or radiation therapy for blood-based harvesting to destroy cancerous cells before harvesting their stem cells. 


For bone marrow harvesting, donors may undergo a bone marrow biopsy or have cancer surgery to remove diseased bone marrow cells before harvest. Once the stem cells have been gathered, they are treated and then introduced into the bloodstream of the transplant recipient.

The Bone Marrow Donation 

Donating bone marrow is a process that involves collecting healthy stem cells from either a donor’s blood or bone marrow. Bone marrow transplants are most commonly used to treat certain types of cancer, such as leukaemia, myeloma, and lymphoma, as well as other blood and immune system diseases. 

By donating bone marrow, individuals can help save the lives of others while also helping themselves by receiving an infusion of healthy stem cells.

The Stem Cell Donation 

During an allogeneic stem cell transplant, a patient is given healthy stem cells from a donor to replace their own damaged or unhealthy cells. Donors can be family members, acquaintances, or strangers. The stem cells are typically harvested from the donor’s blood, bone marrow, or umbilical cord. 


Before the transplant, the patient will receive high doses of chemotherapy or radiation to prepare the body for the donor cells. 

The stem cells are then transfused into the patient through a central venous catheter. This procedure can help fight cancer and improve immune system function and health.


Donated stem cells have numerous benefits for patients suffering from various types of cancer; they can help fight cancer by helping to repair damaged cells and by providing new blood cells that can help fight cancer. 

The Risks And Side Effects 

Allogeneic transplantation, where stem cells from a donor are infused into a patient, can lead to transplant rejection before the cells have had a chance to engraft. This can be a severe side effect of allogeneic transplantation. 


GvHD, or graft-versus-host disease, is another possible side effect of harvesting stem cells from a donor. After allogeneic transplantation, some complications are known as veno-occlusive disease and delayed VOD complications. In veno-occlusive disease, blood vessels in the liver that carry blood to and from the organ are prone to damage after transplantation. 


Delayed VOD complications can arise months or even years after transplantation 

when the donor’s immune cells attack healthy cells in the patient’s body.


The Final Say 

Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation is a type of stem cell transplantation that utilises a donor’s stem cells to treat cancer or blood disorders. Harvested stem cells are then transplanted into a patient’s blood system, multiplying and replacing the damaged blood cells. 


For example, doctors perform allogeneic bone marrow transplantation when they have successfully treated a patient’s leukaemia with chemotherapy, and stem cell transplantation therapy has failed to treat the disease sufficiently. 


The procedure is known for its effectiveness and low risk of complications. For any required consultation and treatment, you can visit Bansal Hospital Bhopal; we have medical professionals who will guide you through the process of bone marrow transplantation. 

About Bansal Hospital

Bansal Hospital is a multispeciality hospital and is one of the leading, reputable and reliable healthcare providers trusted by patients and their families across the region. It has all the major departments, including cardiology, neurology, oncology, orthopaedics, gastroenterology, urology, liver transplant, bone marrow transplantation, nephrology, gynaecology and more. The hospital is equipped with state-of-the-art facilities and technology. In addition, it has a team of highly qualified and experienced doctors and medical staff who provide round-the-clock care to the patient.


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